As the most prominent feature of the polar stratosphere, polar vortex results in widespread changes in the climate system, especially in the ozone variation. The stratospheric ozone depletion over the polar regions occurs as a result of catalytic cycles involving chlorine species in the presence of weak solar radiation from late winter to spring (Solomon et al., 1986).Molecular chlorine is produced in heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) (Solomon, 1999; Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000). Type I clouds contain water, nitric acid and/or sulphuric acid and they are a source of polar ozone depletion. ARCTIC OZONE DEPLETION LINKED TO LONGEVITY OF POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS. Information on extent, particles shape and size distributions is, however, fundamental for the understanding of the magnitude of their contribution to the destruction chain. Ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine come from chlorofluorocarbons and halons, the chemically active forms of chlorine and bromine derived from man-made compounds that are now banned by the Montreal Protocol. Beagley G.E. The warmer temperatures then make conditions unfavorable for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. This includes volcanic aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds. NASA and NOAA use three complementary instrumental methods to monitor the growth and breakup of the ozone hole each year. The upper panel shows the situation when there are no polar stratospheric clouds. • For the first time, measurements show unambiguously that nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) polar stratospheric cloud particles can nucleate above the ice frost point, and there is additional evidence of their widespread occurrence. PMF IAS 28,842 views. The "normal" oxygen we breath has 2 atoms of oxygen in it (O 2). A review is presented of investigations into the correlation between the depletion of ozone and the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Factors influencing the magnitude of the hole are essentially the same as those factors affecting global ozone levels but an area of great uncertainty are the surface reactions that happen in the polar stratospheric clouds. Remove maintenance message. They are best observed during civil twilight, when the Sun is between 1 and 6 degrees below the horizon, as well as in winter and in more northerly latitudes. Stratospheric clouds form during most of the winter and the beginning of spring over the polar regions. 1. Among the key papers explaining the atmospheric chemistry of CFCs and ozone depletion was one by Susan Solomon and several colleagues. To understand its distribution in the atmosphere, you must first know what ozone is and how it is naturally created/destroyed. Arctic Ozone Depletion Linked To Longevity Of Polar Stratospheric Clouds, Say Studies. These clouds of ice and frozen nitric acid play a crucial role in the chemical cycle responsible for the recent appearance of the annual ozone hole. Ozone holes are caused by chemical reactions that take place primarily on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds, ice particles, or liquid droplets, which form at high altitudes in the extreme cold of the polar regions. Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) consist of liquid binary H 2 SO 4 /H 2 O droplets (background stratospheric aerosol), liquid ternary HNO 3 /H 2 SO 4 /H 2 O droplets, solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and H 2 O ice particles. In warmer temperatures fewer polar stratospheric clouds form and they don’t persist as long, limiting the ozone-depletion process. Due to scarce accessibility, knowledge of their properties is still poor. As the meteorological conditions and temperatures are different from year to year, the severity of the ozone depletion also fluctuates. Due to scarce accessibility, knowledge of their properties is still poor. Here we provide information on the size of the polar vortex, the size of the ozone hole, the size of the area where air is cold enough to form Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), and which parts of this cold air are sunlit such that photo-chemical ozone depletion processes can occur. In addition, the latitudinal-time cross sections shows the thermal evolution at all latitudes. In it ( O 2 ) still poor their properties is still poor warmer. Of central importance for the formation of polar ozone depletion takes place only in the gas phase homogeneous. Future Contributors: D. Allen L.M the release of chlorine for ozone-depleting reactions particles play important roles in the place... 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