Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. Whether it comes before and or elsewhere in a sentence, following basic comma rules can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze. The sentence is correct with or without the comma before and. When a comma is used before the conjunction in a list, it is known as an Oxford Comma. (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare.) Just be consistent. More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. The answer is D. Commas should be used when joining two independent clauses, compiling a list, or introducing direct quotations. You should only use the comma in series of three or more. Despite popular belief, the rules for using commas in a sentence don’t depend on what comes before or after a specific word.. Another common misconception is that you need a comma any time you would pause when speaking. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly.In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four … The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. Using a comma before “who” for additional information If “who” is not acting as a restrictive clause, the most likely use of it in a sentence is to provide additional information. Certain grammatical situations require the use of a comma before and. For example: For example: I am going … Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. Direct quotations, such as dialogue, should be preceded by commas. 1. Of those four uses, you’ll only need … In some circumstances, you may use a comma before a conjunction such as "and" when it starts a dependent clause. Flawless spelling & grammar are just the beginning. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' 2. A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. Well, appropriately enough, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer. A comma is required after the final word of the first clause, before and (or whatever conjunction you’re using). Commas Before And are used primarily in two specific situations: An independent clause is a phrase that expresses a complete thought. It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. Some people (mostly, but not exclusively, Brits) consider the Oxford Comma to be a waste of ink, while others … Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). Check out our general guide to comma usage. Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' That comma is optional. When we use and to join two sentences that relate to each other – or independent clauses, it requires a comma before … We can put a comma before and in a list where we list three or more items. Although it’s not technically incorrect to include it, you risk having a choppy sentence. Joining two independent clauses. Use a comma after the final word of the first clause, before “and.”. There is also a prescriptive … Commas can be confusing. In other words, it can stand alone as a sentence. It’s often used to indicate a pause in a sentence or to separate items in a list. The dog is young, well trained, and good natured. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. A simple test is to put a period after each clause and see if it makes sense as a standalone sentence. Should you put a comma before and is a question that requires a straightforward answer. The Serial Comma Helps to Prevent a Misreading Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. (Without the conjunction, two independent clauses typically form a run-on sentence). Sign in to access your personalized homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and clap for stories that matter to you. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … Because … We help brands stay relevant and gain visibility in search results. It’s typically needed when the conjunction and is joining two independent clauses. It was, moreover, a very poor effort. Others refer to it as a serial comma or Harvard comma. 2. For example, we use a pair of commas to enclose a phrase that interrupts a clause or that functions parenthetically. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? When a conjunction (for example: and, or, and but) links two independent clauses, you need to put a comma before the conjunction. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. The rule is – either have the commas both before and after a name, or don’t add it at all. Sam and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. If a sentence contains nonessential words, phrases, or clauses, use commas to set them apart. If the Chicago Manual of Style is more your thing, you should always include it for clarity. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. If the two independent clauses are short and have a strong connection, then the comma should be omitted. The comma before … Once again, we have two independent clauses: It’s cold outside plus I can’t find my coat. The dog is well trained, and good natured. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. Here’s an example: The cake mix requires flour, sugar, eggs, and butter. Appositives act as synonyms for a … It is, furthermore, out of my … The answer is B. Don’t use a comma before and when one of the clauses it’s connecting is a dependent clause. Commas can be used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a sentence. In general terms, a comma falls under the category of a punctuation mark. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of those things. The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation. Note that some style guides would not add the comma after the word “eggs”. Use a comma before and after, however, moreover, furthermore, and therefore. Krista heads up Marketing and Content Creation here at INK. Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. Applications are due by 31 December 2016. Consider this sentence, for example: When creating a list of three or more simple words, items, or concepts, use a comma to separate each word or word group. From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. Commas may also be used to express interruptions to direct quotations. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes your sentence structure clearer. More importantly, you can make it clear that you enjoy cooking, your friends, and cats. Let’s face it. The answer is B. In fact, the Oxford comma is a hotly debated point in modern grammar, and ultimately, it comes down to a stylistic choice. By the way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items. Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. This probably the first use of commas you learned in school: separating items in a list of three or more things. 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